**Author**: Susan Haack

**Publisher:** University of Chicago Press

**ISBN:** 9780226311340

**Category : **Philosophy

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **291

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**Book Description**
Introduction, 1996 Note on Notation Deviant Logic Preface and Acknowledgements Ch. 1 'Alternative' in 'Alternative Logic' Ch. 2 Reasons for Deviance Ch. 3 Deviance and the Theory of Truth Ch. 4 Future Contingents Ch. 5 Intuitionism Ch. 6 Vagueness Ch. 7 Singular Terms and Existence Ch. 8 Quantum Mechanics Deduction and Logical Truth The Justification of Deduction Dummett's Justification of Deduction Analyticity and Logical Truth in The Roots of Reference Fuzzy Logic Do We Need 'Fuzzy Logic'? Is Truth Flat or Bumpy? Supplementary Bibliography of Selected Recent Material Works Cited Index.

**Author**: Susan Haack

**Publisher:** University of Chicago Press

**ISBN:** 9780226311340

**Category : **Philosophy

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **291

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**Book Description**
Introduction, 1996 Note on Notation Deviant Logic Preface and Acknowledgements Ch. 1 'Alternative' in 'Alternative Logic' Ch. 2 Reasons for Deviance Ch. 3 Deviance and the Theory of Truth Ch. 4 Future Contingents Ch. 5 Intuitionism Ch. 6 Vagueness Ch. 7 Singular Terms and Existence Ch. 8 Quantum Mechanics Deduction and Logical Truth The Justification of Deduction Dummett's Justification of Deduction Analyticity and Logical Truth in The Roots of Reference Fuzzy Logic Do We Need 'Fuzzy Logic'? Is Truth Flat or Bumpy? Supplementary Bibliography of Selected Recent Material Works Cited Index.

**Author**: Radim Belohlávek

**Publisher:** Oxford University Press

**ISBN:** 0190200014

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **544

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**Book Description**
The term "fuzzy logic," as it is understood in this book, stands for all aspects of representing and manipulating knowledge based on the rejection of the most fundamental principle of classical logic---the principle of bivalence. According to this principle, each declarative sentence is required to be either true or false. In fuzzy logic, these classical truth values are not abandoned. However, additional, intermediate truth values between true and false are allowed, which are interpreted as degrees of truth. This opens a new way of thinking---thinking in terms of degrees rather than absolutes. For example, it leads to the definition of a new kind of sets, referred to as fuzzy sets, in which membership is a matter of degree. The book examines the genesis and development of fuzzy logic. It surveys the prehistory of fuzzy logic and inspects circumstances that eventually lead to the emergence of fuzzy logic. The book explores in detail the development of propositional, predicate, and other calculi that admit degrees of truth, which are known as fuzzy logic in the narrow sense. Fuzzy logic in the broad sense, whose primary aim is to utilize degrees of truth for emulating common-sense human reasoning in natural language, is scrutinized as well. The book also examines principles for developing mathematics based on fuzzy logic and provides overviews of areas in which this has been done most effectively. It also presents a detailed survey of established and prospective applications of fuzzy logic in various areas of human affairs, and provides an assessment of the significance of fuzzy logic as a new paradigm.

**Author**: Robert Hanna

**Publisher:** MIT Press

**ISBN:** 0262263114

**Category : **Philosophy

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **344

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**Book Description**
An argument that logic is intrinsically psychological and human psychology is intrinsically logical, and that the connection between human rationality and logic is both constitutive and mutual. In Rationality and Logic, Robert Hanna argues that logic is intrinsically psychological and that human psychology is intrinsically logical. He claims that logic is cognitively constructed by rational animals (including humans) and that rational animals are essentially logical animals. In order to do so, he defends the broadly Kantian thesis that all (and only) rational animals possess an innate cognitive "logic faculty." Hanna's claims challenge the conventional philosophical wisdom that sees logic as a fully formal or "topic-neutral" science irreconcilably separate from the species- or individual-specific focus of empirical psychology.Logic and psychology went their separate ways after attacks by Frege and Husserl on logical psychologism—the explanatory reduction of logic to empirical psychology. Hanna argues, however, that—despite the fact that logical psychologism is false—there is an essential link between logic and psychology. Rational human animals constitute the basic class of cognizers or thinkers studied by cognitive psychology; given the connection between rationality and logic that Hanna claims, it follows that the nature of logic is significantly revealed to us by cognitive psychology. Hanna's proposed "logical cognitivism" has two important consequences: the recognition by logically oriented philosophers that psychologists are their colleagues in the metadiscipline of cognitive science; and radical changes in cognitive science itself. Cognitive science, Hanna argues, is not at bottom a natural science; it is both an objective or truth-oriented science and a normative human science, as is logic itself.

**Author**: Ahmad Ibrahim

**Publisher:** Newnes

**ISBN:** 9780750676052

**Category : **Computers

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **293

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**Book Description**
Fuzzy Logic for Embedded Systems Applications, by a recognized expert in the field, covers all the basic theory relevant to electronics design, with particular emphasis on embedded systems, and shows how the techniques can be applied to shorten design cycles and handle logic problems that are tough to solve using conventional linear techniques. All the latest advances in the field aree discussed and practical circuit design examples presented. Fuzzy logic has been found to be particularly suitable for many embedded control applications. The intuitive nature of the fuzzy-based system design saves engineers time and reduces costs by shortening product development cycles and making system maintenance and adjustments easier. Yet despite its wide acceptance-and perhaps because of its name-it is still misunderstood and feared by many engineers. There is a need for embedded systems designers-both hardware and software-to get up to speed on the principles and applications of fuzzy logic in order to ascertain when and how to use them appropriately. Fuzzy Logic for Embedded Systems Applications provides practical guidelines for designing electronic circuits and devices for embedded systems using fuzzy-based logic. It covers both theory and applications with design examples. * Unified approach to fuzzy electronics from an engineering point of view * Easy to follow with plenty of examples * Review and evaluation of free resources

**Author**: Dov M. Gabbay

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 9401704600

**Category : **Philosophy

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **406

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**Book Description**
such questions for centuries (unrestricted by the capabilities of any hard ware). The principles governing the interaction of several processes, for example, are abstract an similar to principles governing the cooperation of two large organisation. A detailed rule based effective but rigid bureaucracy is very much similar to a complex computer program handling and manipulating data. My guess is that the principles underlying one are very much the same as those underlying the other. I believe the day is not far away in the future when the computer scientist will wake up one morning with the realisation that he is actually a kind of formal philosopher! The projected number of volumes for this Handbook is about 18. The subject has evolved and its areas have become interrelated to such an extent that it no longer makes sense to dedicate volumes to topics. However, the volumes do follow some natural groupings of chapters. I would like to thank our authors are readers for their contributions and their commitment in making this Handbook a success. Thanks also to our publication administrator Mrs J. Spurr for her usual dedication and excellence and to Kluwer Academic Publishers for their continuing support for the Handbook.

**Author**: David W. Agler

**Publisher:** Rowman & Littlefield

**ISBN:** 1442217421

**Category : **Mathematics

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **375

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**Book Description**
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.

**Author**: Susan Haack

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 113999266X

**Category : **Law

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **
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**Book Description**
Is truth in the law just plain truth - or something sui generis? Is a trial a search for truth? Do adversarial procedures and exclusionary rules of evidence enable, or impede, the accurate determination of factual issues? Can degrees of proof be identified with mathematical probabilities? What role can statistical evidence properly play? How can courts best handle the scientific testimony on which cases sometimes turn? How are they to distinguish reliable scientific testimony from unreliable hokum? These interdisciplinary essays explore such questions about science, proof, and truth in the law. With her characteristic clarity and verve, Haack brings her original and distinctive work in theory of knowledge and philosophy of science to bear on real-life legal issues. She includes detailed analyses of a wide variety of cases and lucid summaries of relevant scientific work, of the many roles of the scientific peer-review system, and of relevant legal developments.

**Author**: Harry J. Gensler

**Publisher:** Scarecrow Press

**ISBN:** 1461731828

**Category : **History

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **354

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**Book Description**
The A to Z of Logic introduces the central concepts of the field in a series of brief, non-technical, cross-referenced dictionary entries. The 352 alphabetically arranged entries give a clear, basic introduction to a very broad range of logical topics. Entries can be found on deductive systems, such as propositional logic, modal logic, deontic logic, temporal logic, set theory, many-valued logic, mereology, and paraconsistent logic. Similarly, there are entries on topics relating to those previously mentioned such as negation, conditionals, truth tables, and proofs. Historical periods and figures are also covered, including ancient logic, medieval logic, Buddhist logic, Aristotle, Ockham, Boole, Frege, Russell, Gödel, and Quine. There are even entries relating logic to other areas and topics, like biology, computers, ethics, gender, God, psychology, metaphysics, abstract entities, algorithms, the ad hominem fallacy, inductive logic, informal logic, the liar paradox, metalogic, philosophy of logic, and software for learning logic. In addition to the dictionary, there is a substantial chronology listing the main events in the history of logic, an introduction that sketches the central ideas of logic and how it has evolved into what it is today, and an extensive bibliography of related readings. This book is not only useful for specialists but also understandable to students and other beginners in the field.

**Author**: Rudolf Seising

**Publisher:** Springer

**ISBN:** 331948317X

**Category : **Computers

**Languages : **en

**Pages : **382

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**Book Description**
The book is an authoritative collection of contributions by leading experts on the topics of fuzzy logic, multi-valued logic and neural network. Originally written as an homage to Claudio Moraga, seen by his colleagues as an example of concentration, discipline and passion for science, the book also represents a timely reference guide for advance students and researchers in the field of soft computing, and multiple-valued logic.