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Quantum Chance

Quantum Chance PDF Author: Nicolas Gisin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319054732
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 109

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Book Description
Quantum physics, which offers an explanation of the world on the smallest scale, has fundamental implications that pose a serious challenge to ordinary logic. Particularly counterintuitive is the notion of entanglement, which has been explored for the past 30 years and posits an ubiquitous randomness capable of manifesting itself simultaneously in more than one place. This amazing 'non-locality' is more than just an abstract curiosity or paradox: it has entirely down-to-earth applications in cryptography, serving for example to protect financial information; it also has enabled the demonstration of 'quantum teleportation', whose infinite possibilities even science-fiction writers can scarcely imagine. This delightful and concise exposition does not avoid the deep logical difficulties of quantum physics, but gives the reader the insights needed to appreciate them. From 'Bell's Theorem' to experiments in quantum entanglement, the reader will gain a solid understanding of one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary physics.

Quantum Chance

Quantum Chance PDF Author: Nicolas Gisin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319054732
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 109

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Book Description
Quantum physics, which offers an explanation of the world on the smallest scale, has fundamental implications that pose a serious challenge to ordinary logic. Particularly counterintuitive is the notion of entanglement, which has been explored for the past 30 years and posits an ubiquitous randomness capable of manifesting itself simultaneously in more than one place. This amazing 'non-locality' is more than just an abstract curiosity or paradox: it has entirely down-to-earth applications in cryptography, serving for example to protect financial information; it also has enabled the demonstration of 'quantum teleportation', whose infinite possibilities even science-fiction writers can scarcely imagine. This delightful and concise exposition does not avoid the deep logical difficulties of quantum physics, but gives the reader the insights needed to appreciate them. From 'Bell's Theorem' to experiments in quantum entanglement, the reader will gain a solid understanding of one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary physics.

Quantum Chance and Non-locality

Quantum Chance and Non-locality PDF Author: W. Michael Dickson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521581273
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 244

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Book Description
This is a detailed examination of the fundamental questions raised by quantum mechanics. First, is the world indeterministic? Second, are there connections between spatially separated objects? In the first part, the author examines several interpretations, focusing on how each proposes to solve the measurement problem and on how each treats probability. In the second part, the relationship between probability (specifically determinism and indeterminism) and nonlocality are examined, and it is argued that there is a nontrivial relationship between probability and nonlocality. The author then reexamines some of the interpretations in Part One in the light of this argument, and considers how they fare with regard to locality and Lorentz invariance. The book will appeal to anyone with an interest in the interpretation of quantum mechanics, including researchers in the philosophy of physics and theoretical physics, as well as graduate students in those fields.

Non-locality and Modality

Non-locality and Modality PDF Author: Tomasz Placek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401003858
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
Quantum theory is the most successful of all physical theories: it has a towering mathematical structure, a vast range of accurate predictions, and technological applications. Its interpretation, however, is as unsettled now as in the heroic days of Einstein and Bohr. This book focuses on quantum non-locality, the curious quantum correlations between spatially separated systems. Quantum non-locality was one subject of the debates between Einstein, Bohr and others such as Schrödinger. The topic was revived in the 1960s as a result of Bell's epoch-making theorems; since then it has been a very active research field, both theoretically and experimentally. This book contains twenty new papers by eminent researchers, who report recent developments in both the physics of the subject and its philosophy. The physics topics covered include quantum information, the unsharp (positive-operator) approach to observables, the state-space approach, and the pilot-wave theory. The philosophy papers include precise studies of Bohr's reply to the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen non-locality paradox, and of non-locality's relation to causation, probability and modality.

Quantum Nonlocality

Quantum Nonlocality PDF Author: Lev Vaidman
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038979481
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 238

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Book Description
This book presents the current views of leading physicists on the bizarre property of quantum theory: nonlocality. Einstein viewed this theory as “spooky action at a distance” which, together with randomness, resulted in him being unable to accept quantum theory. The contributions in the book describe, in detail, the bizarre aspects of nonlocality, such as Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering and quantum teleportation—a phenomenon which cannot be explained in the framework of classical physics, due its foundations in quantum entanglement. The contributions describe the role of nonlocality in the rapidly developing field of quantum information. Nonlocal quantum effects in various systems, from solid-state quantum devices to organic molecules in proteins, are discussed. The most surprising papers in this book challenge the concept of the nonlocality of Nature, and look for possible modifications, extensions, and new formulations—from retrocausality to novel types of multiple-world theories. These attempts have not yet been fully successful, but they provide hope for modifying quantum theory according to Einstein’s vision.

Quantum Nonlocality and Reality

Quantum Nonlocality and Reality PDF Author: Mary Bell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107104343
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 448

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Book Description
A collaboration between distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, this important anthology surveys the deep implications of Bell's nonlocality theorem.

Non-locality and Possible World

Non-locality and Possible World PDF Author: Tomasz F. Bigaj
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110323303
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 286

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Book Description
This book uses the formal semantics of counterfactual conditionals to analyze the problem of non-locality in quantum mechanics. Counterfactual conditionals (subjunctive conditionals) enter the analysis of quantum entangled systems in that they enable us to precisely formulate the locality condition that purports to exclude the existence of causal interactions between spatially separated parts of a system. They also make it possible to speak consistently about alternative measuring settings, and to explicate what is meant by quantum property attributions. The book develops the possible-world semantics of quantum counterfactuals using David Lewis’s famous approach as a starting point but modifying it significantly in order to achieve compatibility with the demands of the special theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics. There have been several attempts to use counterfactual semantics to strengthen Bell’s theorem and its cognates such as the GHZ and Hardy theorems. These are critically evaluated in the book. Finally, a counterfactual reconstruction of the EPR argument and Bell’s theorem is proposed that sheds a new light on their philosophical consequences regarding the relations between realism and local causation.

Lectures on Quantum Mechanics

Lectures on Quantum Mechanics PDF Author: Philip L. Bowers
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108670792
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
Quantum mechanics is one of the principle pillars of modern physics. It also remains a topic of great interest to mathematicians. Since its discovery it has inspired and been inspired by many topics within modern mathematics, including functional analysis and operator algebras, Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations, principle bundles, distribution theory, and much more. Written with beginning graduate students in mathematics in mind, this book provides a thorough treatment of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics in a style that is leisurely, without the usual theorem-proof grammar of pure mathematics, while remaining mathematically honest. The author takes the time to fully develop the required mathematics and employs a consistent mathematical presentation to clarify the often-confusing notation of physics texts. Along the way the reader encounters several topics requiring more advanced mathematics than found in many discussions of the subject, making for a fascinating course in how mathematics and physics interact.

Bell Nonlocality

Bell Nonlocality PDF Author: Valerio Scarani
Publisher: Oxford Graduate Texts
ISBN: 019878841X
Category : Bell's theorem
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Book Description
The development of quantum technologies has seen a tremendous upsurge in recent years, and the theory of Bell nonlocality has been key in making these technologies possible. Bell nonlocality is one of the most striking discoveries triggered by quantum theory. It states that in some situations, measurements of physical systems do not reveal pre-existing properties; rather, the property is created by the measurement itself. In 1964, John Bell demonstrated that the predictions of quantum theory are incompatible with the assumption that outcomes are predetermined. This phenomenon has been observed beyond any doubt in the last decades. It is an observation that is here to stay, even if quantum theory were to be replaced in the future. Besides having fundamental implications, nonlocality is so specific that it can be used to develop and certify reliable quantum devices. This book is a logical, rather than historical, presentation of nonlocality and its applications. Part 1 opens with a survey of the meaning of Bell nonlocality and its interpretations, then delves into the mathematical formalisation of this phenomenon, and finally into its manifestations in quantum theory. Part 2 is devoted to the possibility of using the evidence of nonlocality for certification of devices for quantum technologies. Part 3 explores some of the extensions and consequences of nonlocality for the foundations of physics.

Quantum Causality

Quantum Causality PDF Author: Peter J. Riggs
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048124034
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 230

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Book Description
There is no sharp dividing line between the foundations of physics and philosophy of physics. This is especially true for quantum mechanics. The debate on the interpretation of quantum mechanics has raged in both the scientific and philosophical communities since the 1920s and continues to this day. (We shall understand the unqualified term ‘quantum mechanics’ to mean the mathematical formalism, i. e. laws and rules by which empirical predictions and theoretical advances are made. ) There is a popular rendering of quantum mechanics which has been publicly endorsed by some well known physicists which says that quantum mechanics is not only 1 more weird than we imagine but is weirder than we can imagine. Although it is readily granted that quantum mechanics has produced some strange and counter-intuitive results, the case will be presented in this book that quantum mechanics is not as weird as we might have been led to believe! The prevailing theory of quantum mechanics is called Orthodox Quantum Theory (also known as the Copenhagen Interpretation). Orthodox Quantum Theory endows a special status on measurement processes by requiring an intervention of an observer or an observer’s proxy (e. g. a measuring apparatus). The placement of the observer (or proxy) is somewhat arbitrary which introduces a degree of subjectivity. Orthodox Quantum Theory only predicts probabilities for measured values of physical quantities. It is essentially an instrumental theory, i. e.

The Message of Quantum Science

The Message of Quantum Science PDF Author: Philippe Blanchard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662464225
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 348

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Book Description
This collection of essays is above all intended to pay tribute to the fact that while QM today is a refined and incredibly successful instrument, many issues concerning the internal consistency and the interpretation of this theory are still not nearly as well understood as they ought to be. In addition, whenever possible these essays take the opportunity to link foundational issues to the many exciting developments that are often linked to major experimental and technological breakthroughs in exploiting the electromagnetic field and in particular, its quantum properties and its interactions with matter, as well as to advances in solid state physics (such as new quantum Hall liquids, topological insulators and graphene). The present volume also focuses on various areas, including new interference experiments with very large molecules passing through double-slits, which test the validity of the Kochen-Specker theorem; new tests of the violation of Bell’s inequalities and the consequences of entanglement; new non-demolition measurements and tests of “wave-function collapse” to name but a few. These experimental developments have raised many challenging questions for theorists, leading to a new surge of interest in the foundations of QM, which have puzzled physicists ever since this theory was pioneered almost ninety years ago. The outcome of a seminar program of the same name on foundational issues in quantum physics (QM), organized by the editors of this book and addressing newcomers to the field and more seasoned specialists alike, this volume provides a pedagogically inspired snapshot view of many of the unresolved issues in the field of foundational QM.