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An Electron-optical Investigation of Soil Clay Minerals and Soil Stabilizing Agent Reactions

An Electron-optical Investigation of Soil Clay Minerals and Soil Stabilizing Agent Reactions PDF Author: P. Michael Terlecky
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Clay
Languages : en
Pages : 38

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Book Description
Characterization of reference clay mineral standards was accomplished by use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Experiments were conducted to determine the reactions between these clay minerals and lime which was used as a soil stabilizing agent. Examination of clay minerals visually by use of the SEM offers a partial examination of the irreactivity with soil stabilizing agents. Both surface area and surface roughness increase while there is an apparent decrease in the crystallinity of the clay minerals examined in the following order; Kaolinite group, Illite group, and Montmorillonite group. Reactions were studied of several soil clay minerals with various proportions of Ca(OH)2 and both with and without contact with the air. The major product of the reactions is calcite with smaller amounts of the material 3CaO . Al2O3 . CaCO3 . LlH2O. Scanning electron microscopy of the reacted materials shows a rough, 'corroded' surface on the clays as well as the formation of small single crystals of calcite and Ca(OH)2. Experimental studies showed that the problems of swelling soils can be alleviated by a double application Ca(OH)2 under proper moisture conditions. (Author).

An Electron-optical Investigation of Soil Clay Minerals and Soil Stabilizing Agent Reactions

An Electron-optical Investigation of Soil Clay Minerals and Soil Stabilizing Agent Reactions PDF Author: P. Michael Terlecky
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Clay
Languages : en
Pages : 38

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Book Description
Characterization of reference clay mineral standards was accomplished by use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Experiments were conducted to determine the reactions between these clay minerals and lime which was used as a soil stabilizing agent. Examination of clay minerals visually by use of the SEM offers a partial examination of the irreactivity with soil stabilizing agents. Both surface area and surface roughness increase while there is an apparent decrease in the crystallinity of the clay minerals examined in the following order; Kaolinite group, Illite group, and Montmorillonite group. Reactions were studied of several soil clay minerals with various proportions of Ca(OH)2 and both with and without contact with the air. The major product of the reactions is calcite with smaller amounts of the material 3CaO . Al2O3 . CaCO3 . LlH2O. Scanning electron microscopy of the reacted materials shows a rough, 'corroded' surface on the clays as well as the formation of small single crystals of calcite and Ca(OH)2. Experimental studies showed that the problems of swelling soils can be alleviated by a double application Ca(OH)2 under proper moisture conditions. (Author).

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks PDF Author: Bruce B. Velde
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540756345
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 406

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Book Description
Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

Clays and Clay Minerals

Clays and Clay Minerals PDF Author: S. W. Bailey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483164640
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 456

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Book Description
Clays and Clay Minerals documents the proceedings of the 14th National Conference in Berkeley, California. This book focuses on the structure and quantitative analysis, surface reactivity, genesis, and synthesis of clays and clay minerals. Topics discussed include status of clay mineral structures; layer charge relations in clay minerals of micaceous soils and sediments; mechanical force fields in a clay mineral particle system; and kinetics of decomposition of cobalt coordination complexes on montmorillonite surfaces. The factors affecting the frequency distribution of clay minerals in soils; stability of brucite in the weathering zone of the new Idria serpentinite; and interrelationships of physical and chemical properties of kaolinites are also elaborated in this publication. This compilation is beneficial to students and researchers conducting work on clay mineral studies.

Ecological Significance of the Interactions Among Clay Minerals, Organic Matter and Soil Biota

Ecological Significance of the Interactions Among Clay Minerals, Organic Matter and Soil Biota PDF Author: A. Violante
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444510396
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 464

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Book Description
Soil MineralOrganic MatterMicroorganism Interactions and Ecosystem Health presents up-to-date information on the dynamics, transformations and bioavailability of xenobiotics in soil and their impact on ecosystem health, the ecological significance of interactions of metals and metalloids with soil colloids, enzymes and microbial biomass and the role of minerals-organic matter - soil biota interactions in the restoration of perturbed ecosystems. The title comprises two volumes: Volume A: Dynamics, Mobility and Transformation of Pollutants and Nutrients. Volume B: Ecological Significance of the Interactions mong Clay Minerals, Organic Matter and Soil Biota. This title could serve as a basic reference for students, teachers, and researchers by providing in-depth knowledge of the current state of the art in a particular area of soil science.

Clays and Clay Minerals

Clays and Clay Minerals PDF Author: Ada Swineford
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483164586
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 302

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Book Description
Clays and Clay Minerals, Volume 8 contains the proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals held in Norman, Oklahoma, on October 11-14, 1959 and sponsored by the Clay Minerals Committee of the National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council in cooperation with the University of Oklahoma. The papers explore research findings as well as problems related to clays and clay minerals in many diverse disciplines. This volume is comprised of 22 chapters and begins with a description of clays and clay minerals present in Wichita Mountain area, southwestern Oklahoma, followed by an analysis of the correlations of kaolinite crystallinity with chemical and physical properties. An evaluation of the amount and distribution of montmorillonite in some kaolins found in Georgia and South Carolina is then presented. Subsequent chapters focus on the geology, mineralogy, and genesis of selected fireclays from Latah County, Idaho; chemical weathering of layer silicate clays in loess-derived Tama silt loam of southwestern Wisconsin; possible uses of clay minerals in the search for oil; and a geochemical method for determining paleosalinity. The final chapter presents the results of a mineralogical analysis of soil clays involving vermiculite-chlorite-kaolinite differentiation. This book will appeal to geologists, geochemists, and mineralogists.

Geology of Clays

Geology of Clays PDF Author: Georges Millot
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662416093
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 430

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Book Description


Contaminants and the Soil Environment in the Australasia-Pacific Region

Contaminants and the Soil Environment in the Australasia-Pacific Region PDF Author: R. Naidu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400916264
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 718

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Book Description
The Australasia-Pacific Region supports approximately 50% of the world's population. The last half-century has witnessed a rapid increase in the regional population, agricultural productivity, industrial activities and trade within the region. Both the demand for increased food production and the desire to improve the economic conditions have affected regional environmental quality. This volume presents an overview of the fate of contaminants in the soil environment; current soil management factors used to control contaminant impacts, issues related to sludge and effluent disposals in the soil environment; legal, health and social impacts of contaminated land, remediation approaches and strategies to manage contaminated land, some of the problems associated with environmental degradation in the Australasia-Pacific Region and steps that we need to take to safeguard our environment.

Clays and Clay Minerals

Clays and Clay Minerals PDF Author: Clay Minerals Society
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Clay
Languages : en
Pages : 512

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Book Description


The Science of Clays

The Science of Clays PDF Author: Swapna Mukherjee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400766831
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 335

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Book Description
This book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive and coherent description of three widely separated aspects of clays: the science of clays; the industrial uses of clays; and the role of clays in the environment. Most of the existing literature lacks such an integrated study and this work endeavours to fill that gap. An exhaustive account of the science of clays is presented in Part I of the book, which includes the classification, origin and evolution, composition and internal structure, chemical and physical properties of clays; soil mechanics; and analytical techniques for determining clay constituents. Part II provides a comprehensive description of the applications of clays and their derivatives in various industries, while Part III describes the role of clays in the environment; the pollution caused by clay minerals; and the application of clays in order to prevent environmental hazards. A principal feature of the book is its explanation of how the structure and composition of particular clay types facilitate their specific industrial or environmental applications, thus describing the interrelationship between three widely varying aspects of clay. A number of thought-provoking questions are raised at the end of the work in order to leave readers with a better insight in this regard.

Clay Materials Used in Construction

Clay Materials Used in Construction PDF Author: George M. Reeves
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862391840
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 568

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Book Description
Concluding the trilogy on geological materials in construction, this authoritative volume reviews many uses of clays, ranging from simple fills to sophisticated products. Comprehensive and international coverage is achieved by an expert team, including geologists, engineers and architects. Packed with information prepared for a wide readership, this unique handbook is also copiously illustrated. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Alec Skempton. Various definitions of 'clay' are explored. Clay mineralogy is described, plus the geological formation of clay deposits and their fundamental materials properties. World and British clay deposits are reviewed and explained. New compositional data are provided for clay formations throughout the stratigraphic column. Investigative techniques and interpretation are considered, ranging from site exploration to laboratory assessment of composition and engineering performance. Major civil engineering applications are addressed, including earthworks, earthmoving and specialized roles utilizing clays. Traditional earthen building is included and shown to dominate construction in places. Clay-based construction materials are detailed, including bricks, ceramics and cements. The volume also includes a comprehensive glossary.